Ask Natural Life
Air Fresheners or Air Pollutants?
by Wendy Priesnitz
We have recently moved into an older house that used to have pets and has some
musty smells in the basement. We’ve made fixing the leaky basement a priority
and planning to pull up the carpets and refinish the wood floors, but can only
afford a few renovations at a time. So, for now, there are some smells we’d like
to get rid of. Can you recommend a safe air freshener?
First of all, air fresheners (also known as room sprays, plug-in deodorizers,
odor neutralizers, air sanitizers, or aromatherapy candles) don’t get rid of
smells; they just mask them, either with perfume or by interfering with your
ability to smell by coating your nasal passages with an oil film or releasing a
nerve deadening agent.
Known toxic chemicals that can be found in air fresheners
include formaldehyde, camphor, ethanol, phenol, petroleum-based artificial
fragrances (which contain their own mix of toxins) and benzyl alcohol. These
chemicals can cause symptoms like headaches, rashes, dizziness, migraines,
asthma attacks, mental confusion, coughing and more. Some of the substances in
air fresheners are also known carcinogens and others are hormone disruptors.
Severity and triggers as well as symptoms vary from person to
person. But when used in a confined area like a house, the intense amount of
toxins in a small area can be especially problematic. Children are particularly
susceptible to harm from chemicals in indoor air.
Asthma is a major problem related to air fresheners and perfumed cleaning
products. In a 2007 European study, researchers found that using air fresheners
as little as once a week can raise the risk of developing asthma in adults. The
epidemiological study, undertaken by the Centre for Research in Environmental
Epidemiology at the Municipal Institute of Medical Research in Barcelona, Spain,
was published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care
Medicine. The investigators used baseline data from the European Community
Respiratory Health Survey, one of the world’s largest epidemiologic studies of
airway disease. They found that the risk of developing asthma increased with
frequency of use, but on average was about 30 to 50 percent higher in than those
not exposed to sprays.
Known toxic chemicals that can be found in air fresheners include
formaldehyde, camphor, ethanol, phenol, petroleum-based artificial fragrances
(which contain their own mix of toxins) and benzyl alcohol.
The researchers didn’t identify the specific cause of the higher asthma
cases, but other studies have. A 2006 study by the National Institute of
Environmental Health Services (NIEHS) found that a volatile organic compound
(VOC) common in air fresheners may harm lung function. The study, which was
published in Environmental Health Perspectives, linked 1,4 DCB to a reduction in
pulmonary function, a link found to be significant even when smoking was
In aerosol form, the dangers of these products are multiplied because of the
micro-particles that are created of the chemicals. But there is also a problem
with air fresheners that plug into electrical outlets. A study by the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has found that a harmful smog can form
inside homes through reactions between fragrance molecules like pinene and
limonene, which are emitted by plug-ins, and ozone. The reactions generate
formaldehyde, which is a carcinogen, and related compounds that many experts
believe are responsible for respiratory problems. Ozone, produced at ground
level when vehicle exhaust emissions react with sunlight, is a common urban
pollutant and can be present in buildings with open windows or regularly opening
When researchers for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) tested 14
brands of common household air fresheners in 2007, they found that 86 percent of
scented sprays, gels and plug-in fresheners tested contained phthalates, even
those bearing “all-natural” and “unscented” labels. Phthalates are hazardous
chemicals known to cause hormonal abnormalities, birth defects and reproductive
problems. When people use air fresheners, the phthalates are released into the
air where they may be inhaled or may land on the skin and be absorbed. Once
these chemicals enter the bloodstream, they can alter hormone levels and cause
other health problems like allergic symptoms and asthma.
As a result of its Clearing the Air report, the NRDC, along with Sierra Club,
the Alliance for Healthy Homes and the National Center for Healthy Housing,
petitioned the EPA and the Consumer Product Safety Commission for stricter
regulations around air fresheners. They want the EPA to pay particular attention
to the link with asthma. The petition stated that Americans suffer significant
exposure “to a veritable cocktail of dangerous and potentially dangerous
volatile organic compounds. In cases of mold and damp indoor environments, air
fresheners may hide an indicator of potentially serious health threats to the
Scented and so-called aromatherapy
candles appear to be no better at clearing
the air. Traditional candles are made of paraffin wax, a petrochemical that is a
by-product of the gasoline industry. And most of the scents are full of harmful
chemicals. The black soot created from burning paraffin – and especially scented
– candles is toxic. Soot particles are very small and are easily inhaled and
deposited deep in the lungs. Despite laws against it, many candle wicks still
contain lead, which is dispersed from burning candles. Lead is linked to
impaired learning and brain damage in children.
According to the American Lung Association, “using slow burning paraffin
candles cause poor indoor air quality, and a serious health concern.” The Asthma
Society of Canada recommends that the very young, the elderly and those with
respiratory diseases like asthma avoid exposure to candle soot.
Of course, the National Candle Association disagrees that consumers should be
concerned. While admitting that “microscopic amounts of organic compounds or
special ingredients used to formulate a particular scented candle may be
released when a candle is burned,” it says they are too minimal to pose a health
risk. However, it also admits that scented candles can trigger asthma attacks
and suggests only burn them in well-ventilated rooms.
Avoid incense too. In 2003, scientists at the Hong Kong Polytechnic
University studied indoor air pollutants emitted from ten types of commonly used
incense. They found higher than permissible levels of carbon monoxide,
formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, methyl chloride and methylene chloride – even
among two brands that claimed to be “environmentally friendly.”
I have serious doubts about the environmental friendliness of any of these
so-called air freshening products. Generally, they are over-packaged, the plastic ones are often not
recyclable and, in many places, unemptied aerosol cans are treated as hazardous
waste. The bottom line is that they are unnecessary purchases for which a market
has been created by playing on consumers’ desire for cleanliness.
Some people like to use pure, organic essential oils to
mask nasty odors in the short-term. But do not burn them (as in candles) because
they are highly flammable and the smoke from burning essential oils may contain
potential carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
However, even exposure to pure, organic essential oils can cause breathing
problems for children and for some people with asthma or other respiratory
problems or environmental/fragrance sensitivities. They can also negatively
affect pets. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are present in essential oils,
and using them in a diffuser can exacerbate their harm. Some essential oils are actually suspected of causing
allergies; they include aniseed, bay, cardamom, citronella, jasmine, bay laurel,
orange, pine and verbena. The use of essential oils during pregnancy is
controversial among aromatherapists. Most sources say that pregnant women should
avoid the essential oils of angelica, basil, cedarwood, clove, coriander,
fennel, hyssop, jasmine, juniper, marjoram. oregano, peppermint (which should
also be avoided while nursing), rosemary, sage, thyme and wintergreen. At any
rate, essential oils are very potent and I recommend that they only be used
under the supervision of trained professionals for valid healing purposes.
The safest way to clear out odors from your home is to remove the source
of the problem. Then keep the air clean by ensuring regular ventilation.
Additionally, many of the plants used to make essential oils are gathered
from the wild. And there is a serious sustainability issue with many of these
plants, especially with the two most popular
scents – rosewood and sandalwood, which are both being decimated in the wild.
Tiny amounts of essential oils require massive quantities of plant material,
especially compared to the amounts required by herbalists to make infusions.
Alternatives to Air Fresheners
You’re right to attack the source of the odor as a permanent solution. But in
the meantime, the best solution is to open windows to bring in fresh air or to
use fans to maintain air circulation.
A more expensive alternative is to purchase a portable air filter, which
could be the subject of a column all by itself. Many of the smaller portable
filters will remove odors and small dust particles. Look for one with a HEPA
(high-efficiency particulate air) filter. Some electronic portable ionizing air
purifiers produce small amounts of ozone and other oxidants as byproducts; ozone
is a lung irritant – especially for the elderly, children and those with asthma
or other respiratory problems – and should be avoided.
There are also ozone generators, which intentionally produce significant
amounts of ozone and are sometimes sold as air cleaners. (Ozone is what you
smell outside just before a rain storm, or if a computer printer or photocopier
has been operated for a long period of time in an enclosed area.) Restoration
contractors use ozone generators to remove smoke odors after fire damage, musty
smells after flooding and other strong smells, but the required levels of ozone
are extremely high and, aside from being harmful on its own, the ozone can bond
with other substances to create unhealthy byproducts. The issue is
controversial, but the California Air Resources Board has banned in-home ozone
generators, effective next year, and will require testing and certification of
all types of air purifiers to minimize the amount of ozone they generate.
The safest way to clear out odors from your home is to remove the source of
the problem. Then keep the air clean by ensuring regular ventilation. Meanwhile,
see below for some temporary natural solutions that won’t harm you,
your family or the environment.
Natural Air Fresheners (only to be used if you,
your family, and visitors can tolerate them)
- Absorb smells with a half a cup of vinegar or a box of open baking soda
- Simmer cinnamon, cloves, cut fresh ginger, rosemary or basil in a little water
- Simmer a few quartered organic lemons in clean water for 30 minutes to an hour
- Set out a small container containing a few teaspoons of natural vanilla extract
- Add potted plants to your room to clear carbon dioxide and other toxins
- Use volcanic rocks to absorb the odors
- Set out a potpourri of dried, fragrant, additive-free flowers or herbs
- A sprig of fresh eucalyptus will scent a room for up to two weeks.
is Natural Life’s founding editor. She has also worked as a journalist for
over 40 years, and as a writer and researcher for
government-sponsored indoor air quality reports. She has also authored 13 books.