Candles – A
Burning Air Quality Issue
by Wendy Priesnitz
I’d never allow someone to smoke a cigarette
inside my home or office. And yet, until recently, I never thought twice about
burning candles...scented or otherwise, for romance or for stress relief.
However, an increasing number of indoor air quality scientists are sounding the
alarm about the ability of candles to emit pollutants like benzene, styrene,
toluene, acetone and particulate matter. Some core wicks on imported candles
have even been found to be made of lead.
Although in the past, specialists in
environmental medicine have occasionally noted problems resulting from candle
use, indoor air pollution and related health problems appears to becoming more
common due to the popularity of scented and aromatherapy candles. If candles are
not properly manufactured, or contain too high quantities of fragranced oils
that are not suitable for combustion, the result could be an indoor air quality
In the U.S., the National Association of Home
Builders (NAHB) has been receiving an increasing number of reports about black
soot deposition. A prime suspect is the increased use of candles and other
indoor combustible materials including incense, potpourri and oil lamps. The
problem is so severe that North America’s largest indoor air quality conference,
held in Texas in mid April, featured a workshop that presented the latest
research and case studies on the effects of black soot from candles.
Soot is a product of incomplete combustion of
carbon-containing fuels, usually petroleum-based. The soot not only discolours
walls and furniture, it can also contaminate your home’s ventilation system.
Although the problems resulting from burning candles can be minimized, the basic
problem is that candle flames must contain soot or they will not be bright. Soot
is the source of the bright white/yellow light that candles emit. A flame
without soot will burn blue, like the flame from a gas stove.
While little or no research has been conducted
into the health effects of exposure to candle soot, studies into the risks of
exposure to soot from diesel exhaust and factory emissions suggest candle soot
can be harmful. Since soot particles are typically very small, they can
potentially penetrate the deepest areas of the lung. Researchers caution that
the very young, the elderly and those with respiratory diseases like asthma
should avoid exposure to candle soot.
How to Minimize Indoor Air Pollution
1. Burn only beeswax
or soy candles, which burn cleaner
than those made with paraffin wax, which is a petroleum product.
2. Ensure the wick is the correct size for the
thickness of the candle. Avoid too thick wicks and those with a wire core that
keeps the wick upright. Burn candles with thin, braided wicks that curl over
when burned. The wick should burn down evenly with the wax.
3. Avoid multiple wick candles.
4. Trim the wick to ¼ inch before lighting.
5. Keep your candle in a draft-free area. The
goal is a low, even flame.
6. Don’t burn your candle in a narrow mouth
container, which will cause unsteady air flow or increase flicker. Candles
poured into glass jars or ceramic containers can often be problematic.
7. Only burn candles made of hard wax.
8. Avoid highly aromatic candles. Ensure the
scent used in the candle is specifically formulated for candles and avoid wax
that contains volatile aromatic hydrocarbons.
9. Cease burning any candles that leave sooty
residues on candle holders or surrounding surfaces.
10. Increase ventilation in rooms where candles
are burning, while avoiding direct drafts on the candles.
11. Extinguish candles after one hour of
continuous burning and allow them to cool before relighting.
Wendy Priesnitz is the Editor of Natural Life Magazine and a journalist with over 40 years of experience.
She has also authored 13 books. Visit her
website to learn more and read more articles.